Quick Answer: What Are Descriptive Epidemiological Methods?

What are the 4 types of research design?

There are four main types of Quantitative research: Descriptive, Correlational, Causal-Comparative/Quasi-Experimental, and Experimental Research.

attempts to establish cause- effect relationships among the variables.

These types of design are very similar to true experiments, but with some key differences..

What is the best definition for epidemiology?

By definition, epidemiology is the study (scientific, systematic, and data-driven) of the distribution (frequency, pattern) and determinants (causes, risk factors) of health-related states and events (not just diseases) in specified populations (neighborhood, school, city, state, country, global).

What are the 5 W’s of epidemiology?

The difference is that epidemiologists tend to use synonyms for the 5 W’s: diagnosis or health event (what), person (who), place (where), time (when), and causes, risk factors, and modes of transmission (why/how).

What are the four methods of epidemiology?

Epidemiological studies generally fall into four broad categories:cross-sectional studies.case-control studies.cohort studies.intervention studies.

What is an example of a descriptive study?

For example, an apparel brand that wants to understand the fashion purchasing trends among New York buyers will conduct a demographic survey of this region, gather population data and then conduct descriptive research on this demographic segment.

How do you present epidemiological data?

Graphs are most frequently used for displaying time associations and patterns in epidemiologic data. These graphs can include line graphs, histograms (epidemic curves), and scatter diagrams (see Box 6.4 for general guidelines in construction of epidemiologic graphs).

What are the types of descriptive epidemiological studies?

Descriptive study types include the case report, cases series, and incidence studies. Analytic studies, on the other hand, should be performed if hypotheses exist for risk factors and diseases, and if these hypotheses need to be tested. Analytic studies fall into two categories: experimental and observational.

What are epidemiological determinants?

In the definition of epidemiology, “determinants” generally includes the causes (including agents), risk factors (including exposure to sources), and modes of transmission, but does not include the resulting public health action.

What is the epidemiological triangle?

The Epidemiologic Triangle, sometimes referred to as the Epidemiologic Triad, is a tool that scientists use for addressing the three components that contribute to the spread of disease: an external agent, a susceptible host and an environment that brings the agent and host together.

What are the three components of the epidemiological triangle?

Among the simplest of these is the epidemiologic triad or triangle, the traditional model for infectious disease. The triad consists of an external agent, a susceptible host, and an environment that brings the host and agent together.

What is a descriptive epidemiology?

Descriptive epidemiology provides a way of organizing and analyzing data on health and disease in order to understand variations in disease frequency geographically and over time and how disease varies among people based on a host of personal characteristics (person, place, and time).

What are the two types of epidemiology?

Epidemiologic studies fall into two categories: experimental and observational.

What tools do Epidemiologists use?

Proportions, ratios, rates, prevalence, incidence, study designs, bias, confounding, effect modification, odds and risk ratios, statistical power, and confidence intervals are defined and discussed. Descriptive epidemiology is concerned with describing the distribution of disease by person, place, and time.

What are the 3 major types of epidemiologic studies?

Three major types of epidemiologic studies are cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies (study designs are discussed in more detail in IOM, 2000). A cohort, or longitudinal, study follows a defined group over time.

What is a descriptive survey?

A descriptive survey attempts to establish the range and distri bution of some social characteristics, such as education or training, occupation, and location, and to discover how these characteristics may be related to certain behavior patterns or attitudes.

What is epidemiological evidence?

Unlike laboratory experiments, epidemiology provides evidence based on studies of human populations under real-world conditions. It largely avoids the extrapolations across species and levels of exposure that are required for the use of data from animal experiments, and which contribute large uncertainties.

How can epidemiology data be collected?

For example, an epidemiologist may collect primary data by interviewing people who became ill after eating at a restaurant in order to identify which specific foods were consumed. Collecting primary data is expensive and time-consuming, and it usually is undertaken only when secondary data is not available.

What are the 3 main elements of descriptive epidemiology?

In descriptive epidemiology, we organize and summarize data according to time, place, and person. These three characteristics are sometimes called the epidemiologic variables.

How is descriptive epidemiology used?

Descriptive epidemiology is used to estimate the number of people affected by a given disease, or with relevant health characteristics, including symptoms and signs, at a population level.

What is an example of epidemiology?

Epidemiological studies measure the risk of illness or death in an exposed population compared to that risk in an identical, unexposed population (for example, a population the same age, sex, race and social status as the exposed population).